Good control of Diabetes Mellitus in children and adolescents is very important to prevent them from having early complications to the kidneys, eyes and nerves.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin injections are the only treatment available and there are different ways in which the injections can be delivered. These include the needle and syringe, insulin pens and insulin pumps. There are also different types of insulin with different duration of actions (ultra short-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting insulin). The insulin regime will be customised according to the child's lifestyle and eating habits.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The diagnosis can be made with an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). In this test, the child will drink an orange-coloured sugar drink. Blood glucose (sugar level in the blood) will be tested before the drink is taken and 2 hours thereafter.
Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus will include diet control, oral medications and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. However, there are some children whose blood glucose is significantly high and they may need insulin injections to better control their condition.