Tics are sudden, brief and repetitive motor movements that can include spoken words (vocalisations) and sounds.
Tics can be either simple or complex:
Tics typically develop between 4 to 6 years of age, and peak at the age of between 10 to 12 years. Tics tend to decrease during the teenage years, and eventually most disappear on their own.
Categories of Tic Disorders:
The diagnosis is made based on the history and physical examination. A tic disorder is diagnosed if the tics have been present before the age of 18 years. The tics must also not be due to the effects of drugs or another neurological condition.
There are no specific tests that are required to make a diagnosis of a tic disorder.
Tics can be associated with other mental health conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder, and learning disorders.
Treatment is aimed at reducing tics that interfere with everyday activities and functioning: