Kidney stones are small, hard deposits of mineral and acid salts on the inner surfaces of your kidneys.
Kidney stones form when the components of urine (fluid and various minerals and acids) are out of balance. Problems in the way your system absorbs and eliminates calcium and other substances create the conditions for kidney stones to form. Less common causes include inherited metabolic disorder, kidney disease, gout, inflammatory bowel disease and some drugs.
Many kidney stones go unnoticed until they cause acute symptoms, specifically, loin pain as the stone passes through the ureter. In many instances, the stones may be discovered incidentally.
A commonly used method to treat kidney stones is using shock waves to shatter the stones into tiny pieces which are then passed out from your urine. Usually it requires sedation or light anaesthesia because of the moderate pain caused by the shock waves.