Health Resources

Head Injuries

Common Types of Head Injuries

The common types of head injuries are intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), contusions and skull fractures.

1) Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is caused by damaged blood vessels and leads to bleeding within the brain. The bleeding can be minor or severe, which requires emergency surgery. Examples are epidural haematoma or subdural haematoma.

Head injuries

2) Contusion is a bruise of the brain tissue.

3) Skull fracture is a break in the bone of the skull. Some fractures are depressed and result in deformity of the skull bone.

Diagnosis and Treatment


  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan


  • Craniotomy is an operation to open the skull bone flap to evacuate severe bleeding within the brain (intracranial haemorrhage).
  • Decompressive craniectomy is an operation to remove a large section of the skull bone flap. It is performed when extremely high pressure occurs within the brain (high intracranial pressure). After removing the skull bone flap, the brain can then be allowed to swell and expand.
Last updated on
Best viewed with Chrome 79.0, Edge 112.0, Firefox 61.0, Safari 11
National University Health System
  • National University Hospital
  • Ng Teng Fong General Hospital
  • Alexandra Hospital
  • Jurong Community Hospital
  • National University Polyclinics
  • Jurong Medical Centre
  • National University Cancer Institute, Singapore
  • National University Heart Centre, Singapore
  • National University Centre for Oral Health, Singapore
  • NUHS Diagnostics
  • NUHS Pharmacy
  • Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
  • Faculty of Dentistry
  • Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health
Back to Top