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Dementia / Major Neurocognitive Disorder

What is Dementia / Major Neurocognitive Disorder?

Dementia or Major Neurocognitive Disorder is an acquired, persistent and progressive disease that causes deterioration in memory, intellect and personality. It is not part of normal ageing and this deterioration tends to affect a person’s everyday functioning.


Main Symptoms:

  • Changes in mood or behaviour
  • Changes in personality
  • Difficulty in performing familiar tasks
  • Disorientation of time and place
  • Loss of initiative or motivation
  • Memory loss that affects day-to-day function
  • Misplacing things
  • Poor or decreased judgement
  • Problems with abstract thinking
  • Problems with language
Types of Dementia:
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Frontal Lobe Dementia
  • Lewy Body Dementia
  • Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
  • Vascular Dementia

Although non-curative, medication such as cognitive enhancers can slow down the progress of cognitive decline. Sometimes, medication is also used to reduce dementia-related symptoms such as agitation, aggression, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, hallucinations and delusions.  An important aspect of dementia care is non-medication treatment approaches such as psychoeducation, modifying the environment and communication styles, having activities and reminiscence among many others. Caregiver support, home intervention services, dementia day care centres and other domiciliary services are sometimes arranged depending on the needs of the patient.

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