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Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction encompasses disturbance in any phase of the physiological sexual response cycle, affecting desire, arousal, performance (in men) and orgasmic response. 

Common issues in men include erectile and ejaculatory dysfunctions, while women may experience pain disorders such as vaginismus (involuntary vaginal muscle spasm) and dyspareunia (painful intercourse).

Signs of Sexual dysfunction in men and women


  • Loss of libido or interest
  • Reduced arousal
  • Difficulty in achieving or maintaining an erection
  • Delayed or absent ejaculation


  • Loss of libido or interest
  • Reduced arousal
  • Vaginal dryness and inadequate lubrication
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Delayed or absent orgasm

Both men and women: 

  • Non-consummation
  • Fertility concerns
  • Marital disharmony
  • Relationship issues.
What causes Sexual dysfunction

Some of the causes include:


  • Anxiety
  • Stress
  • Interpersonal conflicts
  • Fears
  • Depression
  • History of sexual abuse

Physical / organic

  • Vascular, neurological, metabolic conditions (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity)
  • Hormonal changes (menopause, andropause)
  • Penile injuries, deformities (such as Peyronie's)
  • Prostatic, lower urinary tract problems
  • Effects of prescription drugs, alcohol, smoking or substance abuse
  • Allergic reactions to products (in women)
What are the treatments available and their effectiveness

Treatment varies by type of dysfunction and underlying cause. For men with erectile dysfunction, medications like sildenafil, vardenafil or tadalafil are useful can enhance blood flow to the penis. Other options include intra-penile injections and vacuum devices.

Premature ejaculation may be treated with topical anesthetics or specific medications. Testosterone supplementation can improve libido in both in men and women.

For women, vaginal dryness can be alleviated with topical gels or hormone creams. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is beneficial for post-menopausal women. Couple therapy and counselling are crucial for comprehensive management.

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), or impotence, is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection for successful intercourse. It can stem from physical, lifestyle or psychological factors, including diseases, hormonal changes or relationship issues.

Maintaining a positive attitude towards sexuality, addressing diseases, physical disabilities and hormonal changes with ageing can support sexual health.

For men suffering from ED, professional consultation is advised for medication guidance, including options like Viagra, Cialis or Levitra.

Tips on preventing Sexual dysfunction

Prevention includes: 

  • Managing hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis
  • Choosing prescription drugs without sexual side effects
  • Avoiding alcohol, smoking and recreational drugs
  • Improving physical fitness and managing stress
  • Encouraging open communication and resolving relationship conflicts 
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