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The urinary system comprises two kidneys in the abdominal region,
responsible for urine production and waste elimination and the production of
vital hormones. The bladder, a pelvic organ, stores the urine from
the kidneys, holding approximately 350–500 millilitres. The urethra, a
narrow tube, connects the bladder to the external environment. (Figure 1)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when microorganisms such as bacteria (most common), viruses, or fungi infect the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, bladder, and urethra.
UTI symptoms include:
UTIs can arise from various factors:
Recurrent UTIs are typically defined as more than two episodes of UTI within six months or more than three episodes within a year, confirmed by urine culture. UTIs can manifest as cystitis (involving the bladder) or pyelonephritis (involving the kidneys) and are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated.
Uncomplicated UTIs occur sporadically in healthy individuals, while complicated UTIs are associated with urinary tract abnormalities or underlying pathologies, increasing the risk of infection or treatment failure.
For recurrent UTIs, consultation with a family doctor or specialist is advised.
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on services and treatments available for UTI.