Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories and/or dissociative reactions (e.g. flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were recurring, intense or prolonged psychological distress and/or physiological reactions to cues that symbolise or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).
- Alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event e.g. irritable behavior and angry outbursts toward people or things, self-destructive actions, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, concentration problems, sleep disturbance
- Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event(s)
- Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event(s)
- Symptoms persist for more than 1 month
ASD consist of symptoms similar to PTSD, but the symptoms typically last from 3 days to a month.