These cancers are presented as ulcers, pain or lumps in the above-mentioned sites, or dysfunction with swallowing or voice.
These cancers are associated with smoking and alcohol consumption.
This is a group of cancers which involve the lining of the swallowing and breathing passages. Specific cancer sites include the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, tonsil, mandible, maxilla, larynx and pharynx. The overwhelming majority are squamous cell carcinoma, which have a different behaviour when compared to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC).
A large proportion of patients present with lymph node enlargement in the neck suggesting that the cancer spread were detected at a late stage.